Atlas of Cherokee Journey from Old Journals, Diaries, Surveys and Maps

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1721 Census of Cherokee Towns by Frances Varnod

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The following material was extracted from journals, diaries, maps, surveys and many other primary sources: Click on link to open a 29 page document of mileages, towns, populations.

Atlas of Cherokee Geography – Statistics and Mileages


Varnod Census 1721

A True and Exact of the Number and Names of all the towns belonging in the Cherrikee Nation, & the number of Men Women & Children inhabiting the same taken Anno 1721


# Men Varnod Name Equivalent or   location


168 Kewokee Keowee
44 Eascenica Seneca – Sennekaw –  Isuniga
57 Oakenni Oconee – Aquone – Aconne – U-kwu’ni
42 Tomotly Tomassee
71 Cheewokee Cheohee
50 Tockaswooah Toxaway on Toxaway Creek
70 Toogellou Tugaloo
80 Chaugee Chauga
150 Estatoe Tugaloo R
55 Echie Toxaway Creek
30 Chattoogie Chattooga Old Town
60 Tookareehga Warwoman Cr.
42 Stickoee Clayton, Ga
40 Old Estatoe Dillard, Ga
57 Mougake ? Kewoche 1752 Hunter
44 Echoee Echoy
53 Nookassie Nikwasi
89 Cunnookak Canucca
48 Cattojay Cartoogechaye
58 Elojay of Little  
64 Wattogo Watauga
59 Torree or Joree? Ayore – Iotla
78 Cowyee Cowee
60 Tasskeegee  
43 Erawgee  
74 Tookareegha Bryson City
143 Kittowah  
97 Stickoee Whittier
61 Noonnie Qualla
150 Suskasetchie Tuckasegee
72 Tarrahhorie Tillinoah ???
59 Echotee Brasstown, Hiwassee River ??
34 Tuckoe  
60 Turrurah Tullulah
30 Wooroughtise  
36 Taseetchie Hiwassie R
37 Quannissee Hayesville
30 Cheowhee  
124 Tomotly  
56 Elojay Located on Valley R. visited by Chicken in 1715
50 Little Terrequo Little Tellico
50 Swoigella  
70 Little Euphusee Little Hiwassee
12 Little Tunnisee  
70 Great Euphusee Great Hiwassee
100 Terequo Great Tellico
160 Tunnisee Tanasee
77 Settequo Citigo
70 Charraway  
33 Tarrassee Tallassee
40 Tarrawotee Toquoa
70 Taskeegee  
30 Elojay  






Towns of the 1725 Colonel Chicken Expedition – Charles Town July 19, 1715
Savanna Town     E. side of Savannah River at Augusta, GA
Tosey Tossee [Tassee] Lowest Cherokee town located on S. side of Savannah River

2 mi below Tugaloo at Ward’s Creek mouth

Tugaloe Tugaloo    


Captain George Haig/ George Hunter Late 1740’s 1752 Census & Map  
The census spellings sometimes differ from the map spellings.  
 Both spellings are listed together in the chart below. It appears that two different people worked on the map with different handwriting, perhaps Hunter and Haig.
Note: Mr. Haig shoul’d have said 93 miles from Amelia Township, Saxagotha lies above 30 miles further up, and by my Observations when
xxxx(illegible) at Amelia and Saxagotha, the course was WNW instead of NW as Mr. Haig has it laid down – George Hunter, Surveyor Gen. May 27 1752
Receiv’d from James Crokatt Esq. Agent for ye Province of South Carolina. Without any Letter  
LOWER TOWNS   # Headman Notes:
Kenohee – Kewochee Keowee 120 Skiagunota or Little Conjurer Seneca town not listed
Toxway Toxaway 30 Chugarantah  
Oustanarla – Woostelare Pickens Ford 36    
Oustirstie   36 Tethtoy  
Chewochee – Chewohee Cheohee 60 Corahage or All Bones  
Wacunnee – Wacunny Oconee 36    
Chauga – Chauge Chauga 20    
Tugeloo (a mother town) –  Toogaloo Tugaloo 20    
Tomassee – Tomassey Tomassee 100 Clogaheta, Cashectay  
Noyowee Tugaloo 15    
Estatoy Tugaloo 80 Conestochaskioe  
Eachoy – Eachky Toxaway Cr 30    
Kewochee – Kewoche Mulberry 100 MAYBE COWEETA?  
Taicente – Taisente Tessentee 30    
Eachoe (a mother town) – Eachhohe Echoy 70 The Little Warrior  
Nuqussee – Nookassey (mother town) Nikwasi 80 Skiagunsta  
Torcee Tassee 30    
Ounenste   60    
Jorhee – Hyoree Iotla or Joree 60 Scalaloske Sketagunsta  
Wattago Watauga 60 The Blind Warrior  
Cowee Cowee 100 Corone the Raven  
Tarsarla Usannah 20    
Cowetchee – Coweechee Cowitchee 35    
Elejoy – Elijoy Allejoy 80    
OUT TOWNS        
Tuccascegia Oustenarla – Tuccaseagia Tuckasegee 125 Chuckeeche  
Steecoe – Seecoa Stickoa 70    
Conouteroy   30    
Kittowa (a mother town)   20    
Tuckareche – Tuccareechy   70    
VALLEY TOWNS     Note: These river towns lye in a Valley, the King of which is call’d  
Euforsee – Soyonnassy or Euforcee   100 Coronee or the Raven his other name is Tassatee the ManKiller he  
Conoste – Conostee   40 has a great sway over the whole Nation and is a man of the best sense
Little Tellaquo – Little Tellaco   40 in it he is a firm friend to the Engish  
Noyowee   50    
Tomatly – Tomatley   70    
Nuntialy – Nuntiaile   12    
Cheeose – Cheewochee Cheoah 40    
Oustinarla Santeetlah 40    
Chatuga & Great Telliquo (a mother town) 130 The Emperor or Oustanika  (more illegible)  
Toquo – Toqua   40    
Chota – (a mother town)   60 Little Carpenter a friend to the French  
Tennassee – Tennissee   75    
Settico – Settiquo   75 Skaloske  
Tallassee   45    
Clokantouin  a Village unreadable 30    
Notes from Hunter Map        
War Names        
Tacite or the Mankiller is their highest title      
Skyagunsta – a head warrior        
Conostocheskioe – a bold warrior        
Skaleloske – a second warrior        
Anahanoe – a slave catcher        
Maitai – a warrior on water        
Beloved Names:        
Ouka – head king        
Ounista – king        
Ketagunsta – prince – this person is to dance before the king on all solemn occasions.  
Carerosky –        
Cheelahaige – or fire carrier, the conjurer        
Honotoy (Konatoy?)        
River Names        
Savannah River = Chunnahanstee River        
Kewoee River = Kewochee River        
Broad River = Chororveehaw River        
Hiwassee River = Quannessee River        
A “Mine” is shown in Valley Towns. This is probably the old iron quarry noted in other sources.  



1755 SC Trade Authorities      
In 1755 the authorities in South Carolina for the purposes of trade documented the Ani-Yun-Wiya Villages under the following designations:
Overhill Towns      
Great Tellico      
Middle Towns      
Keowee Towns      
Keowee Kewoche: Mulberry Creek
Tricentee Tessentee    
Torsee Tassee    
Torsalla Usannah    
Out Towns      
Oustanale Note: 1752 shows Oustanale and Tuckasegee adjacent
Lower Towns      
Tomasee Tomassee    
Cheowie Cheahee    
Tosawa Toxaway    
Keowee Keowee    
Oustanalle Pickens    
Valley Towns      
Little Telliquo      




Colonel Archibald Montgomery 1760      
Collection: The South Carolina Gazette      
Publication: The South-Carolina GAZETTE      
Date: July 5, 1760        
Title: LIST of all the CHEROKEE Towns, as they stood before the present Expedition.  
Location: CHARLES-TOWN        
Kee-oh-wee”>* Lower   Co-na-hee-tah  
Kul-la-sa-tehih† Lower   To-mawt-ley Tessentee = Ta-san-tih
Tux-oh-weh† Lower   No-ya-wih  
Qua-la-tchih† Lower   Co-tah-co-na-hee-tah  
Estah-to-wih† Middle   Little Tal-li-quoh  
E-tcho-wee Middle   Not-te-lih  
Nou-cas-sih Middle   Eu-for-fih  
Wha-to-gah Middle   Tah-rou-lah  
Ey-o-ree Middle   Chee-oh-hee  
Kow-eeh Middle   E-sta-nol-lih  
Ou-sar-lah [Ussanah] Middle   Set-ti-quoh  
Kow-ee-tchih Middle   Cho-tih  
Tuck-a-la-lant [Burning Town] Middle   Ta-nas-sih  
El-li-joi Middle   To-quoh  
Ta-fan-tih Out   To-mawt-ley  
Tuck-ah-ree-tchih Out   Great Tal-li-quoh  
Kit-to-weh Out   Cha-tu-ghi  
Stick-o-wee Out   Tus-kee-ghi, or Fort-Loudoun  


  • Ou-sar-lah or Ussannah Town: Indian reservee of Cowee name was oo-sar-nar-lee, must be a clue to the origin or Ussannah Town, which was Big Georges Creek
  • Notes: Tassee not listed
  • Tessentee = Ta-fan-tih – should be Ta-san-tih – old f for an s



NOTE. Those who consult maps, will find more towns mentioned in them than in the above lift; which is owing to a custom the Cherokees have of frequently breaking up one and setting another.—They have besides, one small village near each of most of their large towns, which are properly plantations, where the inhabitants of the near town raise their provisions; these seldom contain above 5 or 6 or 10 huts; such was Little-Keeohwee : They are not mentioned in our list, because the Cherokees allow no settlements to be called towns, except where they have a house for their public consultations.


To the foregoing LIST it may not be improper to add, an Account of the Routes and Distances from Fort PRINCE-GEORGE to Fort LOUDOUN, having at last procured one that may be depended on.


Table One and Table Two

The four and twenty mountains begin at Estanollih, and (after continually ascending one and descending another for about 25 miles) this chain ends at Talassih old-town.


* Burnt by two Chickesaws in April last.


† Destroyed by the king’s forces under col. Montgomery, June 2d, 1760.


TABLE ONE       [Fort Loudon Path via Beaverdam Creek]  
From Keeohwee To O-cun-nih old-town     12
To the Village,       6
To Chatughi river,       5
To the War-Woman’s creek (the 2d place of crossing it) 3
To Tuckahreetchih,       4
To Stickowee,       8
To Ou-luf-toi creek (or old-town)       12
To Sugar creek (the 1st water on Eusorsih or Hy-was-sih river) 12
To Little river,       15
To Eusorsih or Hywassih       15
To Nottelih,       6
To Tee-co-tee creek (or old town)       8
To the Beaver-Dams       11
To the top of Chesnut-Hill       6
To the N. W. Passage (a very dangerous pass)     3
To Eu-ni-kc       4
To Chi-stah-no-wih       4
To Six-Mile creek,       2
To Great Talliquoh,       6
To Tanassih,       18
To Toquoh     To Tanassih, [Error] – see table two for correct sequence 2 1/2
To Tomawtley,       1
To Fort Loudoun,       1 1/2
In All,       165
TABLE TWO        
From Keeohwee To Cheeohhee old town,   [Via Cheohee Old Town] [Lower] 10
To Chatughi river,     [Lower] 10
To Etchowee,     [Echoy – Middle] 30
To Nou-cas-sih     To Etchowee, [Error – Nikwasi] see list of towns for correct 3
To Whatogah,     [Middle] 4
To Eyoree,     [Middle] 2
To the top of Nun-ti-a-lih mountain,     [Middle]  [ERROR: 3 miles to Burningtown] 13
To Tuckalalant (or the Burning town)     [Middle] 3
To Cheeohhee,     [Cheoah] [Valley] 12
To Estanollih,       2 1/2
To Ta-las-sih old-town     [Overhill] 25 miles
To Chilhowih,     [Overhill] 5
To Setiquoh,     [Overhill] 4
To Tanassih,     [Overhill] 2
To Toquoh,     [Overhill] 2 1/2
To Tomawtley,     [Overhill] 1
To Tuskeeghi (or Fort Loudoun)     [Overhill] 1 1/2
In all,       130 1/2
Difference in the two Routes,     Miles 34 1/2




Captain Christopher French Account of Miles Marched This Campaign

Places Miles From – To Notes Journal Date CP Journal Account
Fort Prince George – Keowee          
Oconee Old Town 12 Fort Prince George to Camp at Oconee Old Town      
Tuckareetchih Old Town 15 Oconee Old Town to Tuckareetchee Old Town      
Estatoe Old Town 15 Tuckareetchee Old Town to Estatoe Old Town      
Noucassih (Nikwasi) 21 Estatoe Old Town to Nikwasi Town      
Ayoree Town 4 Nikwasi Town to Ayoree Town      
Ussanah Town 5 Ayoree Town to Ussanah Town      
Cowitchee Town 2 Ussanah Town to Cowitchee Town      
Ussannah Town 2 Cowitchee Town to Ussannah Town      
Cowee Town 3 Ussannah Town to Cowee Town      
Stickowee Town 20 Cowee Town to Stickowee Town      
Tuckaritchee Town 6 Stickowee Town to Tuckaritchee Town      
Camping Savannah 14 Tuckaritchee Town to Camping Savannah      
Cowee Town 15 Camping Savannah to Cowee Town   June 29, 1761 10 miles to Cowitchee,  through Ussanah and Camp at Cowee
Ayoree Town by Watauga Town 5 Cowee Town through Watauga Town to Ayoree Town   July 2, 1761 Cowee to Watauga to Ayoree – Camp
Estatoe Old Town 20 Ayoree Town to Estatoe Old Town Accurate per Nat Geo TOPO! July 4, 1761 leave Ayoree – pass Nikwasi – camp 4 miles south of Attack (abt 20 miles) NGT = Near Estatoe Falls
Stickowee Old Town – DO ???? 18 Camp at Falls near Estatoe Old Town? To Stickoe Old Town Is this a mistranscription? July 5, 1761 leave camp soon pass through Estatoe Old Town – Savannah – to Sticoah Old Town 8 hours
ERROR IN TRANSCRIPTION 8 ???       It is 7 miles from Estatoe Old Town to Dividings per NGT & Gadsden – 18 miles does not work, 8 does
Chatooga River 13 Stickoe Old Town to Chatooga River via Warwoman Cr TOPO! measures 11 miles    
Oconee Old Town 14   TOPO! measures 11 miles    
Fort Prince George – Keowee 12        

These mileages from JCS Vol. II, No. 3, Summer 1977, page 295

French Account of  Middle Towns Mileages  
Echoy to Tassee 2  
Tassee to Nikwasi 2  
Canuga not given burned from Nikwasi – a new town
Neowee not given burned from Nikwasi – a new town
Nikwasi to Watogui 3 NW of Nikwasi
Watogi to Cowee 3  
Ayoree to Watogui 1 Ayoree 1.5 miles from river except rocky crossing of cr (Iotla)
Coweetchee to Cowee 3 same side of river as Cowee – road on W side river bad
Cowee to Coweetchee via Ussanah 5  
Cowee to Ussannah 2 opposite side of river – road to it hilly and sometimes commanded
Coweetchee to Burning Town 2  
Coweetchee to Allejoy 7  
Allejoy to Tessentih 7 on a creek – road to there hilly and broken but not very mountainous
Tessentih to Tuckareetchee 3 N bank of river
Tuckareetchee to Kittoweh 2 N bank of river. Direct road on river is bad. Best road 1.5 miles
    north of river
Stickowee 3 S bank of river; good ford at Kittuweh; .75 miles from Stickowee
    narrow pass between river and steep hill; avoid by going up a
    creek w good road leading to a saddle in ridge right on the town
Conutory   scattered farmsteads
Nuntayela   (1) Nuntayela Road – no traders every went this way – foot travel
only two roads from Middle towns   only
& Out Towns to Nuntayela T    
  Great Trading Path (2) Yona Canera via Burning Town or Ayoree
best road is from Valley Towns   Fort Loudon Road also called “The Great Trading Path”
  Dividings 8 miles to from Dividings; 8 miles to the Eastermont or First Ridge of
  Cowart Gap Mountains called the Potatoe Hills; Eulustoy bottom and river;
Oguannassee [Quanassee T] Eulustoy Bottoms 30 miles along bottoms of Heywassee R to Oguannassee which
  30 mi to Quanasee is in a spacious plain; fork in road; Right fork avoids crossing R but
  Hiwassee Fd bad mtn defiles – Traders never use it; Left fork fords Heywassee
Aquonatuste 8 mi on S bank 2 mi deep ford; 8 miles on S bank; ford to N 150 yds; ascend steep hill;
  from Aquonatuste this ford is 2 miles from Aquonatuste and 4 miles from
  4 miles Hiwassee T Heywassee. Cornelius Dougharty lived at Aquonatuste
French: Size of Middle Towns   Estimated population per French: multiply gun man by 4
Nukassee   120 gun men, in a plain and houses straggling, not commanded
Tassee   35 gun men (half as many houses as Echoy)
Echoy   75 gun men
Watogui   85 gun men on S side of River
Ayoree   100 gun men estimate
Cowee   130 gun men – largest of the towns
Ussannah   40 gun men – a village
Coweetchee   50 gun men
Burning Town   60 gun men – on a creek 1.5 miles from the river
Allejoy   40 gun men, small village, very straggling, road bad, full of
    narrow passes and steep slopes; last settlement on this river
    a little way below this town river is joined by another branch
    taking its rise from ridge of mtns to the NE
Tessantih (Alarka)   45 gun men
Tuckareetchih   60 gun men
Kittoweh   50 gun men
Stickowee   60 gun men
French Account of  Valley Towns Mileages  
Heywassee   in a plain on a Heywassee  river
Natali or Canoste to Heywassee 4  
Natali to Tellico River 28 N of Heywassee on Natili River which empties into Heywassee [Valley River] which at this place [Natali] enters the Mountains of the  Westermont or Great Ridge, bread of ridge computed to be 28 miles to Tellico River, road as bad as can be conceived; Proctor, British turned Indian lived at Natali
Tellico River to Tallico & Chatugui 2  
Little Tellico 2 N of Natali; road good
Quotoconechito 3 N of Little Tellico; also called the LONG SAVANNAH
    Several fords between the 2 settlements
Nehowee 3 N of Quotoconechito
Tomatly & Connehitoyn 2 N of Nehowee; towns join each other; at head of the valley;
Tomatly & Connehitoyn to Ayoree 40 by the Direct Road, described as bad – Iona Canara Road
Chiowee 12 NW of Tomatly; road very mountainous and bad
French: Size of Valley Towns    
Heywassee   120 gun men including 60 families of Notchees
Natali or Canoste to Heywassee   65 gun men
Little Tellico   35 gun men
Quotoconechito   75 gun men
Nehowee   65 gun men
Tomatly & Connehitoyn   125 gun men
Chiowee   100 gun men estimated for Chiowee, Esthanary and Turruro
Esthanary   ditto
Tarruro   ditto
French Account of  Over Hill Towns Mileages  
Tomathly 20 Tallico Town [Great Tellico] to Tomathly Town
Toqwa 2 Tomathly Town to Toqwa Town
Tannassie 2 Toqwa Town to Tannassie Town
Choti 1/2 mile Tanassie Town to Choti Town
Settico 2 Choti Town to Settico Town
Chilhoe 3 Settico Town to Chilhoe Town
Tellassie 4 Chilhoe Town to Tellassie Town
Tellico to Heywassie Old Town 15 Great Tellico to Hiwassee Old Town (TN)
French: Size of Over Hill Towns    
Tomathly   90 gun men
Toqwa   85 gun men
Tannassie   60 gun men
Choti   80 gun men
Settico   130 gun men
Chilhoe   45 gun men
Tellassie   40 gun men
Lower Towns Mileages    
From Fort Prince George  to:    
Colisatchee or Sugar Town 3.5 Fort Prince George to Colisatchee Town
Toxaway on the River 3 Colisatchee Town to Toxaway Town
Qualaatchee on a large creek 2.5 Toxaway Town to Qualaatchee Town
Estatoee – ditto – 2.5 Qualaatchee Town to Estatoee Town
Colunna 1 Estatoee Town to Colunna Town
TOTAL 12.5 total marched

Note: Tree 19 feet and 5 inches around  at Estatoe Old Town


1762-63  Christopher Gadsden: A Particular scheme of the Transactions of each Day – Grant Expedition
  Tuckareetchee Town to the Dividings 8    
  Dividings to Herberts Spring to Camp at      
  Estatoe Old Town 7    
  Estatoe Old Town to Echoy Town 12    
  Nikwasi to Dividings 22   Nikwasi to Joe Bradley ford, then down east side of river
  Dividings to Fort Prince George 34    
9-Jun Marched from Tuckareetchih to the Dividings; get there by eight oclock A.M. as the colonel did in his
  own way. Halt the remainder of the day here, and set to work about a post.
  Number of miles marched by the whole army when together: 8
10-Jun Halt , employed about the post all this day.    
11-Jun Halt file  Employed as before. After dinner marched from the Dividings to Herbert’s Spring, near Estatowih Old Town
  Number of miles marched by the whole army when together: 7
12-Jun This day the action would have happened, according to this xxxx me (instead of the 10th) after which
  march to Etchowih, at the colonel did in his own way  (N.B. This town was destroyed by­­ some Indians
  after the colonel left it in 1760)      
13-Jun March from Etchowih to Cowhih, without doing any thing else but send off an exress to Ninety-Six to Captain Russell for more provincials
  Number of miles marched by the whole army when together: 6


List of the Names of the Towns in the Middle and Back Settlements Burn’t by the Detachment under the Command of Col. Grant of the 40th Regiment
These Eleven towns and Etchoe, which was Destroyed last year, are all on the Echoi Branch of the Tanassee River
Burning Town      
These Four, on the Stecoe Branch of the Tanassee River are called the Back Settlements or Outside Towns



Thomas Kitchin  1760 New Map of Cherokee Country
Chotee (head of Chattahuche R)  
Nanguche (near previous)  
Sukchi (head of Flint R)  
Estotoo (Tuguloo R)  
Tugalue (ditto)  
Taucoe (ditto)  
Chaugee (ditto)  
Noyounee (ditto)  
Echy (ditto)  
Toxsaah (ditto)  
Keenohee (Savanna R)  
Seneca (ditto)  
Old Steckoe  
Old Estotoe  
Evanga (in forks of Litt T & Tuck. R.)  
Little Teriquo  
Great Uforsee  
Great Teriquo  



1772 William Gerard de Brahm



1775 William Bartrams List of Towns and Villages in the Cherokee Nation, inhabited at this day:
Overhill towns on the Tanase or Cherokee River – 6 towns
Chelowe [Chilhowee]
Sette [Citigo]
Chota great
Joco [Toqoa]
Overhill towns on the Tanase or Cherokee River – 5 towns
_______, Big Island
On the Tanase East of the Jore Mountains – 4 towns
Inland on the branches of the Tanase – 4 towns
Ticoloosa [Burningtown]
Jore [Ayoree or modern Iotla]
Conisca [Canucca at Cartoogechaye]
Nowe [Nowee at Cartoogechaye]
On the Tanase over the Jore Mountains – 8 towns
Tellico [Little Tellico]
Ocunnolufte [Aquanaguste]
Chewe [Chowee]
Quanuse [Quanassee]
Inland towns on the branches of the Tanase and other waters over the Jore mountains – 5 towns
Tellico [Great Tellico at Tellico Plains]
Chatuga [Chatooga – near Great Tellico]
Hiwassee [Hiwassee Old Town]



1776 Authur Fairie’s List, Williamson Expedition Towns Burned
note: not all of these were visited by army     Tuckasegee
Over Hill towns on the River Highawassa:   Watauga
1 First Highawassa, Great Hiwassee Ayoree
2 Tiliqua, Telliquo    
3 Eqinsticonsee,      
4 Sategoet, Citigo    
5 Sililwee,      
6 Talassee, Tallassee    
7 Chote, Chota    
8 Tinnissey, Tanasee    
9 Toco, Toqua    
10 Kastegeh, Tuskeegee ?  
11 Taliquoeah, Telliquo?    
12 Hamelecoheh,      
13 Wayohheh      
14 Thalululeah Tulula    
Towns in the Middle Settlements on the river Watago  
1 Anucaca, the chief; Nikwasi ?    
2 Thesinteah; Tessentee    
3 Canuchleh; Canucca    
4 Nowweah; Nowee    
5 Leaheadseath; ???    
6 Watago; Watauga    
7 Esocah; Ayoree ?    
8 Cowwee; Cowee    
9 Thecaleackah; Tuchalant or Burning Town
10 Yesoke; Usannah    
11 Tocreege; Tuckareeche  
12 Cheeohhet. Stecoah ?    
Valley Towns on the Timossey River      
1 Tholulewah; Tulula    
2 Tamossee; Tomassee    
3 Nowesee;  Neowee   WHERE IS CANUCE?
4 Telica; Little Tellico  
5 Canasty; [Canaste or Canastian] Canoste    
6 Sanuseah; CANUCE?    
7 Cooksahoh;      
8 Nottalay;   [Nottely] Nottely    
9 Couonak;  [Conuttee???? Canuce ?    
10 Highwassa; [Hiwassee at Peachtree] Hiwassee – Peachtree
11 Ecoheh; [Ecohee or Brasstowh] Ecohee – Brasstown
12 Cusataluheh;      
13 Itseheh;  [Etowah??]      
14 Choweh;  [Chowee- Hayesville] Chowee – Hayesville
15 Thasquittheheh; [Tusquittee] Tusquittee    
16 Coostugesueh; Chatauga    
17 Chote;  [Chota – Georgia] Chota – GA    
18 Nacuche; [Nacoochee] Nocoochee    
19 Frogtown [GA] Frogtown GA  



1776 – Ross Diary – Williamson Expedition: Valley Towns in order of their approach
Burning-town  (army camps here)  
Passes Bloody Hill to:  
Timossy (2 miles below Burningtown; army camps here – large apple trees, whiteman-like improvements)
Nowyouwee (2 miles below Timossy)  
Tilicho (Little Tellico)  
Cannastian (6 miles below Timossy and 4 miles below Nowyouwee) (Canosti in Fairy’s diary)
Canucy (2 miles below Cannastian – site of Murphy) (spelled Canuce in Fairy’s diary)
Ecochee (Brasstown) (called Great Ecochee in Fairy diary)
Highwassah (camped here and met northern army – Peachtree)



1776 – Professor Rockwell, NC, Account of the Parallel and Combined Expeditions against the Cherokee Indians based on Wheelers History of North Carolina
Watanga [Watauga]
Esteetoa [Estatoia is a term used for the Little Tenn River named after the old town of Estatoe near Dillard, GA]
Ellajay [Ellejoy or Allejoy]
He then proceeds to reprint the Ross Diary.



William Dells Diary 1776        
camp at Hominy Creek to camp        
(cross Pigeon River)        
camp at Rich Land Creek 12   from camp Hominy Cr to camp at Richland Cr  
Scotts Creek 12   Rich Land Cr Camp to Scotts Cr Camp  
small village on Tucksagee R     on N side of river and 16 acres of corn  
Camp on Savannah Cr?? not given   Scotts Cr Camp to Camp on Savannah Cr  
Camp at foot of 7 Mile Mtn 10   Camp to Camp at foot of Cowee Mtn  
cross mtn to Watauga Town 4   100 houses and 160 acres of corn  
march to Cowee Town 3   100 houses and 160 acres of corn ??? Same as Watauga 500 men to Estitioga Town  7 miles up river
Cowee to Alijoy Town 7      
Village 3 miles beyond Alijoy 3   could be over mtn at Wesser or Panther Creek  
Cowe to Conucha or Nonucha        




Drayton List of Names, Numbers of Towns; also the Number of Men in the Cherokee Nation: as furnished William Henry Drayton in 1775, by Richard Pearis
Lower Towns      
Estatoe 40   From Memoirs of the American Revolution,  Drayton, Vol. 1, page 428
Qualache 30   List from Captain Pearis.
Toxaway 51    
Sugar-Town 29    
Socauny 26    
Esseneca 80    
Cheowee 29    
Tugelow 30    
Little Chota 41    
TOTAL 356    
Middle Settements and Vallies      
Little Highwassy 12    
Chaneusay 50   Murphy
Cutolope 12    
Kewone 30    
Nottelly 25    
Little Tellico 12    
Noewee 50    
Temotly 50    
Burning-Town 30    
Little Chota 60    
Nacutche 30    
Callugojoy 10    
Cewocutrie 10    
Cheowee 15    
Fork of River 12    
Cowee 100   Cowee
Joree 50   Ayoree
Wottogo 40   Watauga
Nucesy 60   Nikwasi
Noewee 60    
Cheowee 100    
Cannowca 15   Cannuca
Econewrighty 45    
TOTAL 908    
Chilkowee 120    
Settaco 160    
Chota 100    
Island 200    
Toco 40    
Tuskege 12    
Mouth of the River 40    
Nachy Creek 15    
Tellico 30   Great Tellico
Hiwassy [Great Hiwassee] 40   Great Hiwassee
TOTAL 757    
      In the above list, some towns appear to be twice or thrice mentioned; but as it was copied from the original document, no attempts have been made to reconcile any irregularities. The same observation will apply, as to the numbers of men.
Middle Settlements and Vallies 908    
Lower Towns 356    
Over-Hills 757    
Total, Cherokee Men 2021    



Benjamin Hawkins Mileages – 1796-1797    
Pickens Hopewell Plantation on Keowee to Oconee Station 23 miles
Oconee Station to Cherokee Boundary on Oconee Mtn 1.5
Boundary to Village in forks of Chauga R.   2.25



1816 Norton




List of Upper and Valley Towns and Number of Indians That have been at Tellico out of them beginning of October, 1800
Records of the Moravians Among the Cherokees, Vol. 1, Crews and Starbuck, page 213
Tusquittee 122   [Tusquittee Creek – Clay Co]
Coosee 60    
Beechtown or Cucloe 173    
Estenallee 203    
Little Tellico 78   [Valley River]
No we ey   96   [Nowee- Valley T]
Acohee   119   [Ocoee]
Buffaloe Town  114    [Cheoah River]
Cowee   136   [Middle Town]
Aconuttee 73    
Notley 94    
Nantiyalley 82    
Watoga 96    
Ducktown 58    
Hightower   286   [Rome, Ga]
Pinelog 110    
Nukesa 200   [maybe Nacooche, GA]
Ellejoy  359    [GA]
Tanquoah 151    
Coo sey wey tee 211    
Rabbit Trap 109    
Red Bank 72    
Long Swamp 96    
Ali Col e Saw 27    
Coi to Kee 39    
Cabbintown 180    
Sa la quo ah 126    
Sumach 45    
Total 3,515    



William Holland Thomas List of Reservees and Spoilations 1830s ??
Towns or Settmements or Reserves      
Wah to ger     Watauga
Car too ka jah     Cartoogechaye Creek at Sand Town – Jim Peckerwood
along Tennessee River      
along Valley River      
Peach Tree Creek     Hiwassee River
Cowee Town     includes Bear-Going in Cowee Valley
Cowee Creek     William Jones Reservee
Cowee Mountain      
Echotie     Overhill
Tillico River     Overhill
Sittaco     Overhill
Notle ?      
Peach Orchard     Beaver Toter – Shepherd Creek/Cowee Cr
Sugartown Creek      
Sugar Town Cullasaja R    
Deep Creek      
Little Tellico Valley R   Kus-ka-lees-ga
Ya-lar-kee Creek Alarka   Walter
Headwater Tennessee     Jack, Reservee (headwaters of Tennessee River)
Stecoah Old Field      
Cula whee Town Cullawhee    



1837 Era Removal Communities
WG Williams – Brett Riggs Cherokee Households







Chart of Chronological Attacks on Cherokee Towns by the Rutherford, Williamson, Christian and Georgia Forces 1776

Date Town Military Action and Notes
      June 1776 Cherokees take warpath – about 60 persons murdered
July 14   Neel and Clinton Richard Pearis’ (British trader to Cherokees) house burned
July 17   Williamson DeWitts Corner with 500 men
July 22   Williamson Camped at Barkers Creek
July 31   Williamson Attacked at Seneca Town
Aug 1 Seneca Town   Seneca on both E & W banks of Keowee River burned
Aug 2      
Aug 3 Estatoe Town on Estatoe Cr Thomas & Neel Burned
Aug 3 Qualatchee on Estatoe Cr Thomas & Neel Burned
Aug 3 Toxaway on Keowee Thomas & Neel Burned
Aug 4 Sugar Town on Keowee Williamson Burned
Aug 6 Coneross Town Williamson Burned per letter Rutherford Aug 14th, 1776
Aug 6 Tugaloo Town Williamson Burned eastern shore of river. GA forces had burned the west
Aug 7     Camped in the vicin of Tugaloo, destroying corn, Anderson and Pickens in mountains along river scouting
Aug 7 Chauga Town Williamson detachment Six miles from Tugaloo T. Since they sweep upstream to Estatoe and Brasstown the following days, they must have went down river to Chauga Town or maybe NE to Toxaway T on Toxaway Creek
Aug 8     Camped near Tugaloo
Aug 9-10th Estatoe Town   Destroyed the corn and forded the Tuguloo R. where a battle takes place. Burns Estatoe Town on Georgia side.
Aug 11 Brasstown on Brasstown Cr Williamson Burned
Aug 12   Pickens Detachment Ring Fight est. 60 Indians killed, 12 whites killed + 3 mortally wounded
Aug 13 Tomassee Williamson Burned Tomassee??
Aug 30 Town on Jocassee R (Tulpehakin or Chittigogo) Williamson detachment Burned

Possible a settlement on Jocassee R was called Chatooga or a variation of

Sept 1 Unnamed village or camp beyond  Toxaway Catawbas & Light Horse detachment Ross version, camps hid in a hollow in the mountains beyond Toxaway. Indicates they camped and “after this day” and then returned through Toxaway. We assume they destroyed the encampment and houses as was the policy
Sept 7 Socony Town Williamson Detach Burned
Sept 8 Cane Creek Town Williamson Detach Burned. This had to be the town 7 miles from Fort Rutledge noted as being destroyed by a detachment.
Sept 9     Army marches across Keowee River and camps at Seneca Town site
Sept 13     Williamson Army marches for the Middle Towns
Sept 16 Site of Tuckareetchee Old Tn Williamson Destroyed in1760 by Montgomery ?? Not rebuilt or standing in 1776
Sept 17 Tessentee Town Williamson Indians fled; army camps here but does not record in journals that the town was burned.
Sept 19   Williamson Battle of Black Hole
Sept 23 Burningtown on Valley R Williamson Burned
Sept 24 Tomassee (Tomatly) Williamson Burned
Sept 25 Neowee Williamson Burned
Sept 25 Little Tellico Williamson Burned
Sept 25 Canosti Williamson Burned
Sept 26 Canuce Williamson Burned
Sept 26 Ecoche (modern Brasstown) Williamson Burned
Sept 27-28 Chowee Williamson Rutherford captured these towns but left the burning of houses and destruction of corn for Williamson on his return to GA
Sept 27-28 Tusquitee Williamson ditto
 Ditto Quanasee Williamson ditto
Sept 28 Catugajoy or Chatuge Williamson Located near dam of Lake Chatuge and site of old Quanasee
Sept 29 Nacoochee Williamson  
Sept 30   Williamson  
Oct 1 Frogtown Williamson Detach Detach found only a couple of houses there and no corn
Oct 1 Chota in Nacoochee Valley Williamson A large town 110 houses
Oct 3 Little Chota [Nacoochee?] Williamson 50 to 60 houses
Oct 4 Soquee Old Town Williamson  
Sept 7 Tuckasegee Rutherford Modern Webster
Sept 10 Watauga Rutherford Assume they burned it this day 100 houses 160 acres corn
Sept 10 Nikwasi Rutherford Detach 600 man detachment sent to find Williamson and to burn towns and plantations of the enemy. Dells says they went as far as Estatoe at modern Dillard. Did they burn Tessentee? probably
Ditto Echoy Rutherford Detach Ditto
  Tessentee – see Williamson?    
Sept 11 Cowee Rutherford 100 houses – 160 acres corn
Sept 12 Alijoy Rutherford Detach burned
Ditto Village 3 miles beyond Alijoy Ditto burned
Sept 18 Shooting Creek Rutherford burned
Sept 19 See note:   Rutherford took Quanasee, Chowee, Tusquittee, etc. and left this area for the Aquonatuste intending to burn it on his return. After meeting Williamson, it was determined that Rutherford would re-sweep the Valley Towns and since it was on Williamsons route back through Georgia, Williamson would burn and Quanasee, Chowee, etc.
Sept 21 Aquonastustee Rutherford Burned by Rutherford
Sept 22-24 Hiwassee Rutherford Believe Rutherford destroyed this town by now. It might be the town called the Creek Town.
Sept 26 Canucca Rutherford – troops stationed at Nikwasi On moving to a camp on east side of Little Tennessee River, scouts from the baggage guard and base camp were sent back to burn Canucca and Nowee. Since Nikwasi was likely burnt on Sept 10th, this is why Canucca became the base camp rather than Nikwasi. The houses were utilized by the armies until they left.
Ditto Nowee Ditto Ditto  70 houses
  Christian Expedition   John Sevier was under Christian
  Moore Expedition   Under Rutherford but on a joint mission with South Carolinians under McDowell?
  Stecoa at modern Whittier    
  Major site on north side of Oconaluftee River opposite the mouth of Soco Creek   Mileage fits perfectly. Major town was once here as identified by archeologists.


Arthur Fairies List of Towns:

The list includes towns the army did not visit so the list was not a record of where they actually went.


Over Hill towns on the River Highawassa.

First Highawassa, [must be Great Hiwassee]

2 Tiliqua,  [GreatTellico]

3 Eqinsticonsee,

4, Sategoet,

5 Sililwee,

6 Talassee,

7 Chote,

8 Tinnissey,

9 Toco,

10 Kastegeh,

11 Taliquoeah, 12 Hamelecoheh, 13 Wayohheh 14 Thalululeah

A list of the names of the Towns in the Middle Settlements on the river Watago: 1 Anucaca, the chief; 2 Thesinteah; 3 Canuchleh; 4 Nowweah; 5 Leaheadseath; 6 Watago; 7 Esocah; 8 Cowwee; 9 Thecaleackah; 10 Yesoke; 11 Tocreege; 12 Cheeohhet.

Valley Towns on the Timossey River: 1 Tholulewah; 2 Tamossee; 3 Nowesee; 4 Telica; 5 Canasty; 6 Sanuseah; 7 Cooksahoh; 8 Nottalay; 9 Couonak; 10 Highwassa; 11 Ecoheh; 12 Cusataluheh; 13 Itseheh; 14 Choweh; 15 Thasquittheheh; 16 Coostugesueh; 17 Chote; 18 Nacuche; 19 Frogtown